Belarus State Economic University


Literary texts are generally motivating materials for many learners since they include different slots in which learners are likely to find expectations and experiences in their schema. Thus, literature is a way providing learners to learn a new language effectively as it promotes higher reading comprehension and a more advanced vocabulary besides accelerating their cognitive skills. When considering this in terms of critical thinking theory, it is directly seen that teaching literature or integrating literature in curriculum has gained importance in foreign language teaching institutions since the purpose is not merely to involve learners in reading but also help them to achieve maximum comprehension through their cognitive skills. Many learners enjoy reading these texts since they offer both content (literature) and language (structure) in a harmony. Also, through reading ultimately they develop their proficiency; thus, by means of reading, learners can develop both their language skills and have a chance to reflect orally or written what they have learnt. For instance, on the language level, literature has a distinctive richness when concerned more figures of speech; more allusions, a more varied vocabulary, and a distinctive style. Including various literary texts into curriculum will offer advantages and encourage learning to grasp meaning in the text when used appropriately and effectively in a FL learning environment. On the translation level, however, there seems an ambiguity how well learners comprehend though literature and how truly they reflect their outcomes through translation. Thus, eliciting foreign-language learners' performance in terms of translation should be the main concern for their comprehension when they read short stories in FL. In this respect, the main focus will be on their products they translated from their mother tongue to foreign language or vice verse. Additionally, it searches what difficulties learners encounter during translation of literally texts.

During learning process about how to read and reflect it in another language more successfully, there are three variables to be considered; the reader, the text, and the strategies. To achieve comprehension and have improvement, the interaction among all these factors must be taken into consideration. Reading and translating, whether in a NL or FL context, involves the reader, the text and the interaction between the reader and the text. While reading a text, reader makes predictions with his/her former knowledge, experience and interest. In order to make the reading completely understood, there should be a relation between the text and the reader. As learners read, they search and construct meaning based on what they bring to the text and what the text brings to them as given in the table below.
understanding language),
functioning as an agent,
increasing student
awareness of the value of
transferable skills and
knowledge, resulting in a
greater pupil confidence,
and finally contributing and
motivating language
learning through
translation. No matter how difficult and frustrating at times, it is like learning an instrument. Also, in the long run it will be beneficial as much as enjoyable for a person to reflect his opinions easilly and foster empathy, tolerance and an awareness of global problems (Chia 1996; and Singhal, 1993).

Consequently, literature and translation can promote a gradual development of the understanding of self and the world (Bargraser, 1984). Nevertheless, learners may not be motivated enough to read literacy texts because they have lack of comprehension. In other words, they mail fail translate whatever they read from their mother tongue to FL or vice versa. Failure in comprehension may result from a number of reasons one of which is translation. Significant point in unable to transfer into mother tongue can be summarized as (1) Insufficient linguistic competence: Most learners have problems at inability to interpret infer, predict and imagine; they also have lack of inability to comprehend the plot, characters, vocabulary, and point of view. (2) Inability to predict: Predicting serves as a tool for learners to quess the main idea and the meaning of the unfamiliar words. During reading process, when learners bring
Readers rely heavily on the knowledge authors bring to the text, which is
related to schema. Schema-the organised knowledge- may be very broad and
general or may be fairly narrow. Comprehension primarily involves activating or
constructing schema that accounts for what is in a text, similar to constructing
an outline on a script. Although activating schemata is essential in reading,
translating is more complex than simply seeing words. As they transact with
text, proficient, readers are constantly relating what they read to their experiences
or other information found in the text. Thus, translation involves putting whatever
in the schema into words in the other language meaningfully; it also requires
accelerating cognitive skills by selecting the most appropriate word within a
structure to make it fluent and native-language-level for the readers or speakers.
This is how learning a language becomes appealing for language learners
besides promoting thinking skills (i. e. by linking concept formation [abstract
and concrete],
Tablo 1
What text presents and what reader
brings during reading process
' ' Reader brings I
their background experiences to the text, they can easily predict what is going on in the text. However, it can be a difficult matter for FL learners to predict in a FL rather than predict in their mother tongue, and upon unprediction and lack of translation, they become demotivated to read and speak in their FL anymore, (3) Insufficient knowledge of how to deal with texts and language: Most of the learners have insufficient knowledge about how to deal with literary texts. Even though they know how sentences function, how sentences are formed grammatically, and how they are composed of words, they may not behave accordingly during translating and refleting it in their mother tongue.

In translating literary texts learners encounter some difficulties such as reading word by word; focusing too much attention on from at the expense of meaning; paying too much attetion to details and not being able to put vocabulary into his native language; limited word choice in dictionaries; and limited background knowledge. Background knowledge of learners should also be activated by instructor. If a selection is provided with the background knowledge, for example, this would encourage learners to use predictions on what a particular work is about based on. They should also encourage learners about transferring what they understand into their language or vice versa. In other words, learners must reflect what is inferred by the author within their translation because syntactic and vocabulary knowledge are essential for knowledge. Lexis has been identified as a source of difficulty for language learning readers; hence the need to develop learners' recognition vocabulary and translation them appropriately is essential.

The participants are the students attending Belarus State Economic University (BGEU) and studying Turkish as a 3rd language (9). Their 1st and 2nd languages are analytic or synthetic languages such as English, German, Spanish or French.
Data Collection and Analysis
In order to tackle the problem more deeply, they are given simplified stories in Turkish in order to sort out where and what type of problems they had during the learning process, especially in terms of translation. They have read stories and translated them into Turkish in order to see how much and correctly they reflect their comprehension. The purpose is to see if their mistakes or errors are resulting from the differences of languages in structure and lexis and also dictionary uses.
Consequently, students' problems in translating Turkish sentences inappropriately stems from both the linguistic differences between the their native language and target language. While translating sentences between two languages Turkish and Russian, they are not likely to transfer their native language knowledge to their foreign language because of linguistic difference. Thus, even though it seems naturally correct to them, might be mistakes or errors while producing sentences in Turkish. This generally results from different reasons: unawareness of case differences between two languages, the complexity of the target language, or misuse and lack of words in dictionaries. Available dictionaries learners usually use simply give comprehensive wordlist without information provided in each entry to read and understand for a full communication and expression in the language. Some dictionaries not being updated include old words that are no longer used. Since the languages change throughout time, some dictionaries may not fulfill the needs of students to use the language they study. Eliminating these difficulties is likely to involve them in more reading and encourage them to keep journals to return to their teachers. Another solution might be rapid recognition exercises as a strategy. Memorizing vocabulary for a test or studying lists of words isolated from reading experience have virtually to affect on comprehension on one's vocabulary. Finally, predicting activator reader's schemata is on the basis of prior knowledge and gives learners a purpose for reading and turns reading into an active search to see whether a prediction is correct through their translation.


  1. Bargraser, C. (1984). Teaching reading-comprehension skills at a distance. Forum. 13/3, 41-43
  2. Lengo, N. (1993). Some suggestions for teaching reading. Forum. 31/3, 10-12.
  3. Mei-yun, Y. (1993). Cohesion and the teaching of EFL reading. Forum. 31/1, 12-15.
  4. Singhal, M. (1993). Reading: cultural differences. Available: http://azstarnet. com
    www. Act title. edu.



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